In 1993 the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) team wrote the specification for calling command line executables on the www-talk mailing list; however, NCSA no longer hosts the specification. The other Web server developers adopted it, and it has been a standard for Web servers ever since. A work group chaired by Ken Coar started in November 1997 to get the NCSA definition of CGI more formally defined. This work resulted in RFC 3875, which specified CGI Version 1.1. Specifically mentioned in the RFC are the following contributors:
CGI Group Inc.,Conseillers en gestion et informatique more commonly known as CGI, is a globalinformation technology (IT) consulting, systems integration, outsourcing, and solutions company headquartered in Montreal, Canada. Founded in 1976 by Serge Godin and André Imbeau as an IT consulting firm, the company soon began branching into new markets and acquiring other companies. CGI went public in 1986 with a primary listing on the Toronto Stock Exchange. CGI is also a constituent of the S&P/TSX 60, and has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. After almost doubling in size with the 1998 acquisition of Bell Sygma, CGI acquired IMRGlobal in 2001 for $438 million, which added "global delivery options" for CGI. Other significant purchases include American Management Systems (AMS) for $858 million in 2004, which grew CGI's presence in the United States, Europe and Australia and led to the formation of the CGI Federal division.
CGI Federal's 2010 acquisition of Stanley, Inc. for $1.07 billion almost doubled CGI's presence in the United States, and expanded CGI into defense and intelligence contracts. In 2012 CGI acquired Logica for $2.7 billion Canadian, making CGI the fifth-largest independent business processes and IT services provider in the world, and the biggest tech firm in Canada. In 2014 CGI ranked No. 974 on the ForbesForbes Global 2000, which ranks the world's largest public companies. At the time CGI had assets worth USD $11.1 billion, annual sales of $9.9 billion, and a market value of $9.6 billion. As of 2015 CGI is based in forty countries with around 400 offices, and employs approximately 65,000 people. Canada made up 15% of CGI's client base of March 2015. 29% was in the United States, while around 40% of their commissions came from Europe. 15% was the rest of the world.
A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved.
Mechanicalanalog computers started appearing in the first century and were later used in the medieval era for astronomical calculations. In World War II, mechanical analog computers were used for specialized military applications such as calculating torpedo aiming. During this time the first electronic digital computers were developed. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).
The term "computer", in use from the early 17th century (the first known written reference dates from 1613), meant "one who computes": a person performing mathematical calculations, before electronic computers became commercially available.
"The human computer is supposed to be following fixed rules; he has no authority to deviate from them in any detail." (Turing, 1950)
Teams of people were frequently used to undertake long and often tedious calculations; the work was divided so that this could be done in parallel.
The first time the term "Computer" appeared in The New York Times was February 3, 1853; an obituary stated:
Since the end of the 20th century, the term "human computer" has also been applied to individuals with prodigious powers of mental arithmetic, also known as mental calculators.